Perioperative fluid and transfusion management.


Optimal perioperative fluid management in pediatric patients entails a knowledge of the effects of preoperative fasting, perioperative third space losses, and hemorrhage on the patient's fluid compartments. We explain which of the various available intravenous fluids should be used to correct various fluid and electrolyte losses that may occur. The authors also review techniques for limiting homologous transfusion requirements and discuss certain complications associated with blood transfusion.


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